Credit Card Processor Online – What Is Importance Of Online Credit Card Processor ampamp The Latest Trends

May 9th, 2015 by admin

Virtually any on the internet retail business without Credit Card Processor Online create should consider this to be just as one alternative. Frequently web based business owners feel stressed with the potential client of selecting a credit card cpu for their company. Most of them feel that the particular fees connected with dealing with a web-based cpu are extremely much rather than worth the advantages. If however a person closely weigh all your options you can see that in case you carefully analysis Online Credit Card Processor you’ll find one that meets your company. It will not seem like it although almost any irritation that you just provide your customers on the market point may result in loss in profits. At first this might certainly not appear like a massive offer however, these slight loss can add up to and including considerable decline in revenue.

There are several simple things that that can be done to reduce the options making Credit Card Processor Online headaches free. To start ensure that you don’t get involved with the running organization which will charge an individual costs just to review your software and also get you ready to go. Your next step is to assess the degree of customer support which will Online Credit Card Processor will provide you. Obviously only a few company is the same and many types of include different needs. Accomplished through talking to your merchandise repetition about a quick question at first in addition to testing its effect effort and time to earn your business.

For the specialized area something that is essential to discover is exactly what type of back expert services the Credit Card Processor Online has got set up. If they’re carrying out web server maintenance of in the event that something falls the length of time ahead of its copy system begins. In the event you decide on a company it doesn’t guarantee some sort of backup you can be caught can not method payments for several time. This could seriously hurt business and needs to become tackled severely. You also want to look for as numerous possibilities as is possible if it really involves benefiting from bills. Together with Online Credit Card Processor to be able to settle for assessments simply by web, telephone or maybe fax is definitely a great alternative.

Finally you must obviously think about the tariff of Credit Card Processor Online you will pick. You ought to value this contract charges, designed for situations in the event that within your organization people take care of a lot of slight dealings reduced costs usually are connected with key problem. However if you take care of a lesser number of purchases however with larger fees you may well be trying to find additional features as well. General because tedious simply because this process could it be has to be considered genuine in order for your company to be able to succeed. It is usually a safe choice to match a favorite company that features a proven track file. This post is easily accessible by way of looking at customer supporter sites just like and others. Yet another way to use is to discover popular websites with your market and discover precisely what support they are making use of.

When selecting Credit Card Processor Online many aspects should be thought about beyond the expense. There are several offline and internet-based merchant card account places to select from. You should look at what they’ve to make available and how guide assist your distinct wants. Among the best areas to begin your quest is simply by figuring out in which debit or credit credit cards you want to agree to. Learn provde the option of utilizing straight, nevertheless call for that you build support via one of their own income channels. For example, the places you at this moment loan company Credit Card Processor Online  most likely offers a merchant account and could function as the simplest way to begin your bank card Online Credit Card Processor. Often times merchant service can be found within bundles by using product owner goods that you possibly will not require or maybe work with.

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Buying Safe on Online Auction Sites

May 3rd, 2015 by admin

Fraud runs rampant across the Internet and online auction sites are a magnet for those dishonest individuals who want to steal your money. From the mega-giants like eBay to the mom %26 pop auction sites, the scammers find their way there if they think there’s any chance of snatching a dime out of your pocket. Even with all the safeguards put in place by those sites trying to eliminate their presence, these rip-off artists still somehow find their way into your trust and then your pocketbook. Whether its international thieves from Nigeria and other countries, or simply delinquent kids here in the United States, the problem has reached serious proportions. It appears law enforcement agencies have very little time and minimal resources to combat the problem in any real depth. As CEO of UpperBid.com Online Auctions, I see the problem first hand, and I am writing this article in hopes it will help buyers avoid getting ripped off.

Spotting the Rip-off Seller

Fortunately for the buyer, identifying the rip-off seller is usually not a difficult task since most dishonest sellers tend to be sloppy, lazy and not very bright. Their success usually only comes off the gullibility and innocent trust of their victims.

The most obvious red flag in identifying the rip-off seller is when you are somehow able to purchase an item for way below the cost it is being sold for everyone else on the web. The scammers will usually place an item at a much lower price since their objective is close the sale and placing it close to the price of other sellers will most likely not produce any sales for them, especially on a different auction site other than eBay. They will usually focus on high-ticket items that are in high demand such as computers, video game systems, and phones. They are less likely to place something up for sale that will take a long time to sell, no matter how valuable. They want the quick buck and they want it now. The more in demand the high-ticket item you are buying is, the more scammers there are trying to pretend they have that item for sale. The wise saying, ‘If it’s too good to be true, it probably is’ definitely applies here. You simply are not going to get a computer or some other item for $500 that is selling everywhere else on the web for $1000.

In addition, look at a seller’s other auctions if the site allows you to. Scammers generally tend to have only a few auctions (usually dutch on each one when allowed by the site so they can get more sales on each listing) and these are almost always only for high-ticket items way below the going price. Since they tend to be the laziest bunch in society, you will usually not find more than a few auctions listed. They simply don’t like to do any real work. Of course, there are always exceptions to this, but it is rare.

Often with a scam seller, you will find sloppy and quickly pasted together titles and descriptions that ramble on that show very little skill in how to sell an item, but this in itself doesn’t mean it’s a rip-off seller. Also, they can sometimes have a very good description, but again, since they are usually lazy, they just cut and paste this from some legitimate auction somewhere. This sloppiness should only be considered if it is in conjunction with other signs.
One of the most important considerations when dealing with sellers is to look at their feedback provided on the site where they are selling. If there is no feedback, there is of course more risk to you. Seldom will you find a scam seller with feedback on a legitimate auction site, though there are exceptions to this. Even when there is feedback, check the dates of the feedback and see how recent or old the feedback is. If you see a long-term steady stream of feedback over many months to present, that is a good sign that it is probably a legitimate seller. Scammers do sometimes sell a couple of items at a low price to get good feedback or may use another second account to generate fake feedback, so if all the feedback is recent, then the feedback becomes less valuable for determining validity. Having said this, there are a lot of legitimate new sellers who don’t have any feedback yet and feedback alone should not deter you from making a purchase unless you see a lot of the other signs mentioned here.

Another sign often found with scammers is their insistence of urgency in paying for the auction item since they are worried about getting caught or discovered and not getting the money. They may even use the words ‘immediately’ or ‘as soon as possible’ when asking for payment. Sometimes you can see this in their auction listing itself.

It is getting more and more difficult to identify rip-off sellers from the methods of payment they accept since I have seen a trend of more of them using Paypal and Google checkout now. But generally, if a seller will only take Western Union, check and/or money order, that is a red flag. The more options they accept for payment, the more likely they are a legitimate seller since it is more difficult to get setup at more than one payment processing company (say both Google and Paypal) and they are also generally lazy. Yet, be careful of this too since I have seen them offer these forms of payment but then try to push you towards another method of payment if you request the one they really can’t use. For example, they may offer Paypal, but then try to tell you they have problems with that account and try to push you toward one of the other methods they offer. They may also try to push you to use an escrow service or payment processing service you have never heard of before, which often is merely a fraudulent site set up by the rip-off seller to solicit your credit card information.

Payment Options for the Buyer

We now need to review payment methods the buyer can use and examine the safety and risks of each method.

If you are a buyer, I strongly suggest that you never, ever send cash. In addition, a request for payment through Western Union is a favorite of scammers, and should be avoided. If a seller cannot take any other form of payment, that should raise a red flag. Checks and money orders should never be used for high-ticket items. If you must use a check or money order for any amount, I strongly recommend writing on the back of the instrument ‘For Deposit Only.’ This will make it much more difficult in the case of a scammer since they will need to actually deposit it into a real bank account that can later be traced back to them. We actually require sellers on UpperBid.com who accept checks or money orders on our site to be willing to take them with ‘For deposit only’ on the check.

It is probably best to now bring up the danger of escrow services and payment processing services. Be careful when considering the use of an escrow or payment processing service unknown to you, because there have been hundreds of fake escrow services and payment processing services popping up across the Internet for years now. If you have a seller trying to get you to use a specific escrow service or payment processing company you have never heard or, be very wary. Even if you find one on your own, make sure you do your research to ensure they are a valid legitimate company that you can trust. They will often fraudulently use logos of the Better Business Bureau, Verisign and other such graphics to give them a look of authenticity. If you get conned into using a fake service, then they will charge your card and cause you all kinds of problems once they get that information.

The safest way for you to pay at this point on the Internet is through Google Checkout or Paypal if directly using your credit card to pay since they process your transaction from your credit card and the seller never sees the actual credit card information. There are a few others as well that are legitimate and allow you to pay with a credit card, but these are the two most reliable. If you end up getting scammed, you can dispute the transaction with your credit card company as long as you pay directly from your credit card for the product or service.
Many readers may think paying from your Paypal account is the safest method, but unfortunately this definitely is not the case. The Paypal Buyer Protection Policy ‘only applies to items purchased on eBay or to payments funded through your debit card and processed through the ATM debit network.’ And it does not cover non-tangible goods, live auctions, or vehicles (even if on eBay) and does not provide protection for non-eBay purchases. Even the coverage for eBay purchases is limited to only $200 of the cost in many cases. They may cover up to $2,000 if strict requirements are met (seller has a feedback rating of at least 50, seller’s feedback is at least 98% positive, seller has a verified premier or business account in good standing, Paypal is listed in the description as an acceptable payment method, and the seller is from a list of specified countries). Also, there are flaws in this protection system even for eBay purchases. For example, if you file a claim for an item not arriving, and then the seller sends the item to you, you will not be able to open up another claim if the product is defective or not as described.

Here is their description of their various Buyer Protection programs from their site:

Buyer Protection Programs. If you buy an item using Paypal and either do not receive the item or receive an item that you believe is Significantly Not as Described by the seller, we encourage you to open a Dispute with the seller in our Resolution Center. By doing so, you will initiate our Online Dispute Resolution Process—a step-by-step system designed to facilitate communication between you and the seller in order to get resolution of the issue. If your dialogue with the seller fails to produce a satisfactory result, you can then escalate the Dispute into a Claim that we will evaluate for reimbursement under one of the following programs:
a. Paypal Buyer Complaint Policy – Our best efforts program to reimburse Users for losses only to the extent we are able to recover the funds from sellers.
b. Paypal Buyer Protection Policy – Our program to reimburse Users for losses for up to (i) $2,000.00 USD (Top Tier Coverage Amount) for eligible items purchased on eBay and (ii) up to $200.00 USD (Basic Tier Coverage Amount) for all other eligible items purchased on eBay and for eligible items purchased on eBay. Please see section 13.9 to determine whether Top Tier Coverage Amount or Basic Tier Coverage Amount applies to your eBay purchase.
c. Buyer Protection for eBay Express – Our program to reimburse Users for the full amount of losses for items purchased on eBay Express.
d. Extended Buyer Protection with Paypal Credit – Our program to reimburse Users for the full transactional amount of the items purchased using Paypal Credit.
These programs only cover payments for tangible, physical goods. All other payments, such as payments for intangibles, services, airline flight tickets, or licenses and other access to digital content are not covered by any Buyer Protection Program that we offer (but may be covered by Chargeback rights).

When using your Paypal account for the purchase of non-eBay goods, you are eligible for the Buyer Complaint Policy process of dispute and then claim, but there is no guarantee that you will recover anything in the case of a fraudulent transaction. Using a credit card to pay through the Paypal system if you are able to is only way to ensure you have control of your protection, since you can dispute any charge with your credit card company if you are ripped off. Paypal tries to discourage this type of payment and if you send a payment request to a Paypal registered email account, you will not see a payment by credit card option when you click through to the Paypal site. On the other hand, if you have the request sent to a non-registered email account, there is a link on the bottom that you can click and pay via your credit card without even using your Paypal account. It is highly advisable to have the seller send a payment request to an email address that is not registered with Paypal so you can pay with your credit card.

Summary for Safe Auction Buying

We will now summarize the above contents into a number of steps reduce your risk of getting ripped off when considering the purchase of an item for sale at an online auction.

1. Compare the final purchased price to that of the same item being sold elsewhere on the web.
2. Look at the other items a seller has for sale.
3. Review the quality of the listing’s title and description.
4. Examine the seller’s feedback.
5. Keep an eye out for an unnatural insistence for urgency in payment.
6. Evaluate their payment methods they accept.
7. Be wary of any changes they try to make regarding payment.
8. Pay by credit card only through an established credit card processing company.

Most sellers are honest, hardworking individuals who have great products and services. It is only the small minority of dishonest sellers who make these steps necessary. Now that you have this valuable information to assist you in weeding out the scammers, enjoy a wonderful shopping experience as you find the great deals out there at online auctions.

Robert King, CEO
http://www.upperbid.com

Robert King is CEO of UpperBid LLC, the company that runs the online auction website http://www.upperbid.com. He has been involved with online auctions in a variety of capacities since 2001, including as a former eBay power seller and store owner. In addition, he has managed and administered a variety of different websites since 1999.

Bad Credit Installment Loans Online Best Option For Online User

April 30th, 2015 by admin

Nowadays, with the technology progress, almost everything can be finished through internet. Even if, borrower loan applications have been refused by the traditional banks due to poor credit scores, borrower still can obtain financial help from other loan providers through internet. The only issue borrower require take note is how trustworthy the online lenders are. Here are some basic steps to follow when borrower is in the midst of getting bad credit installment loans online.

Find your loan options:

Nowadays, searching for bad credit installment loans online can be a easy work. By clicking the websites of the online lenders, borrower will be able to obtain all sorts of information need. Borrower can roughly know the loan amount based on borrower monthly income. He can also know the monthly installment.

Ask yourself honestly:

I am not saying that bad credit installment loans are harmful. To a certain extent, they are genuinely helpful and friendly for people who are required money. Say frankly, different person may have different needs when they apply for these loans in online. Receivers need to evaluate the financial situation carefully to find out the loan is extremely beneficial for receivers or not. If receivers do not need money for an urgent matter, it is not wise for the receivers to obtain bad credit installment loans.

Find genuine online lenders:

If getting the bad credit installment loan is a must, then borrowers are advised to search for it through the internet. The application process can be extremely quick if borrowers are able to provide sufficient personal information. However, please do not submit any personal documents to any loan lender if the borrower has not done any background checking on the particular lender. It will be good for receiver or borrower to collect the data of those genuine lenders from the official website of the Better Business Bureau (BBB).

Consider the interest rates carefully:

Please accept the fact that borrower need to bear much higher interest rates when borrower pick up unsecured bad credit installment loans online from the special lender. In order to save as much financial cost as possible, borrower must spend some time to compare the interest rates of different loan lenders so that the borrower can select one which provides the best interest rate.

Borrowers have to protect him self from being cheated by dishonest financial companies. Please follow the steps stated above carefully and will be able to obtain bad credit installment loans online successfully. The borrower doesn’t need to own any fixed goods or property.

Getting Personal loan with online Lenders is now easy, just find a right source. If want more information about Bad Credit Installment Loans Online or need approval for loan then visit following site – http://www.badcreditpersonalloanss.com

Buy Online Without a Credit Card

April 30th, 2015 by admin

What is Graphcard?
Graphcard is an online payment system that enables anyone anywhere in the world to pay online without having a credit card
How does Graphcard work?
Graphcard brings together 3 players: customers who want to shop online, resellers who enable customers to keep their accounts liquid by selling virtual prepaid cards from Graphcard and merchants from whom the customers buy

To get started, each player has to open a Graphcard account from Graphcard’s homepage. For customers opening a personal account and distributors opening a reseller account, registration is completely free. There is a one time activation fee of $45 for merchant accounts. This fee is due when the merchant starts accepting payments online through Graphcard. Account-holders communicate with one another primarily via email.

For personal account holders and resellers, the next step after opening an account is to add funds to it. While resellers have a special arrangement with Graphcard that enables them load their accounts by wire transfer from their banks, personal account holders have various options; the leading one is to purchase a virtual prepaid card from a reseller. Alternatively, they can load using personal checks, electronic transfers from checking accounts, Western Union money transfers and money orders.

Once the account is active and funded, the shopping process begins. Customers identify the merchant from whom they want to purchase an item, and log on to their Graphcard account to send money via email to the merchant. If the merchant is registered with Graphcard, the funds are deposited into their account immediately. The buyer is not charged any fees for sending money this way. If the merchant is not registered but accepts checks or money orders, Graphcard makes payment using either option. When payment is effected, Graphcard notifies both the merchant and the customer of the payment via email. An online reporting tool also enables both parties to check the status of their transactions.

Graphcard has a cool feature that allows members to convert their Graphcard funds into an online debit card. This is accomplished by simply purchasing a virtual card using the funds from one’s Graphcard account. Graphcard then allows the account holder to view card details such as the card number, expiry date and CVV2 code via their secure 128 bit SSL encrypted website. The virtual card does not have personal information such as names and enables Graphcard account holders to shop online as they would with a traditional credit card but with the added benefit of anonymity.
So why should I choose Graphcard?
As an Internet user without a credit card or debit card, you will definitely want to sign on with Graphcard. Merchants looking for an additional revenue source should consider registering too.

Graphcard has opened up a whole new world of possibilities as it enables those without credit cards to shop from online sites such as Ebay.com Amazon.com, Yahoo.com, Google.com, lookingforromance.com and a wide variety of other merchants. The service is hassle free and straightforward: the only requirement is enough funds in one’s account to cover planned purchases.

For customers who possess a credit card but are concerned about the privacy of their financial information as well as protection from credit card fraud, Graphcard offers peace of mind. According to the Federal Trade Commission, credit card numbers and expiry dates are the two most sensitive pieces of financial information one can ever disclose to others. By using Graphcard, customers are guaranteed that fraudsters have no way of getting to that information.

For merchants, Graphcard is a dream come true as it gives them access to additional sources of revenue without having to worry about chargebacks. Recent studies show that at least one third of the estimated 750 million Internet users worldwide do not have credit cards to buy goods online with. This is due to the inability of their countries to accept credit cards. When a merchant begins to accept Graphcard, these underserved millions become viable customers immediately. Since Graphcard is a prepaid service, merchants are protected from the threat of chargeback and fraudulent purchases. Customers make their payment at the time of purchase and all transactions take place on a secure web site.
What about privacy?
Graphcard is the sole owner of all information that customers supply during the process of registration and when using the Graphcard website. While data such as names and shipping addresses may be shared with merchants from whom the customer makes purchases, bank accounts and credit card details are not divulged to third parties.
How does Graphcard make its money?
Since registration and online shopping is free for customers, the obvious question is how does Graphcard make its money? Graphcard’s main source of revenue is fees and commissions. For example, on conversion of an account to an online debit card, activation fees starting from $3.95 are charged. Monthly debit card statements cost $0.99 and another $0.99 is charged as a monthly service fee. Merchants pay a one time $45 to activate their account while Graphcard’s per sale commissions ranges from 2.99 to 5.4% of the total sale plus $0.44 per transaction.

So what is the downside?
The key challenge to this payment solution is signing up enough merchants who will accept Graphcard. As Graphcard account-holders are now able to convert their funds to an online debit card and make direct payment to merchants instantly, this problem seems to have been solved. Overall, buyers may still experience some minor glitches when paying on some web sites that are not set up to accept prepaid debit cards, but these are common problems and should not be a major issue.
In conclusion
As the boundaries of the digital economy expand daily, Graphcard will likely be one of the key players bringing in customers in currently underserved countries into the world of e-business. As its recognition grows, it may just become the premier method of online payments for those without credit cards in over 260 countries.

Pay Online Without a Credit card</

Need Cash In A Flash Online Payday Loans Are Definitely The Solution To Your Troubles

April 24th, 2015 by admin

Not having enough cash could happen to the best of us. While we make sure that there’s cash in our pockets, problems can strike abruptly. This is where emergency online payday loans enter. This form of money advance is best applied for and used when things unexpectedly happen. If you’d like to select the right emergency cash loans provider, look for the following – the company standing, the type of lender, the approval process, the amount desired, and also the mode of repayment.

The first thing you want to search for is an online payday loans company with good standing. There are several to be found on the internet and some might be less reputable than others. You don’t want to take the risk of id theft so you must find a reliable lender. Learn about what has been talked about and get friends and family members for advice. If you spot a company which has a physical work place or is a section of a large franchise, then these are excellent bets to settle for.

People who need money badly may sometimes wish to avoid being seen going to a lender’s office. Should you be one of these, online payday loans can save you the embarrassment. Some of these lenders have websites where you can submit an application for one. Once you have made a decision to go to an office and secure a cash loan, you must figure out what you require beforehand. Your best bet is usually to contact a customer support agent to confirm whether this is the kind of lender you want to use.

The application process for emergency online payday loans can vary. Some firms will just expect you to complete an online application and sign. Others will require you to fax pay stubs, bank records, and additional information together with the application. There are also some firms that will get in touch with your employer to confirm information. Be sure to review the forms carefully to ensure there isn’t any time wasted with the application process you are not in a position to complete.

A lot of emergency cash loan companies avoid credit checks before lending out money. What you should be aware of will be the very low amount given on your first loan. Avoid the difficulty of being rejected by reviewing the factors that determine loan limits. Above all, avoid borrowing a lot more than what you are able to comfortably pay back.

In choosing the most effective emergency cash loans, always compare repayment plans and interest charges. Companies may have different interest rates so look carefully at each of them to discover the best choice. Also, make sure you confirm repayment plans. Some of those you look at may request you to provide them with your bank information. This makes it easier for them to withdraw the funds once it becomes available.

There are several that will ask for the money to be wired straight to them. At the end of the day, you want to go with the most convenient repayment method. After all, you don’t wish to wind up further behind than when you started.

Gianna Loggia has used online payday loans to tide him over during emergency situations and knows of a good cash loans company if you ever need one.

Factors influencing consumers towards online shopping

April 18th, 2015 by admin

by Milad salimi and mehrdad salehi Introduction

The term Internet, as a business tool for companies and individuals, is nowadays the most widely used Non-store formats. According to Magee (2003), the number of online shopper’s growth is larger, Compared to those who are just using internet, which means more users comprehend the convenience of online shopping. In addition, not only the number of users grows, but also the capacity of their purchases would be increased. (Monsuwe, et al, 2004. The two most frequently mentioned reason for online shopping are convenience and price (Chen and Zhang, 2003).

Increasing numbers of individuals are gravitating towards more intensive use of the Internet as the accessibility of technology, the availability of information, and the capability to interact through the Internet increase and evolve. Apparent capabilities of the Internet involve directions for gathering information, purchasing a product, or rendering a service.

These advances in Internet technology permit for the extension of shopping options beyond traditional methods that may be more time consuming. Matters with having to physically obtaining information with offline shopping methods are alleviated, and customers are better able to efficiently use their time. For example, except of having to physically visit various stores to compare prices or rely on circular pamphlets in newspapers, a consumer is able to search and retrieve required information through the Internet. 

The internet utilization has grown at the rate of 20 percent per year since 1998, according to the US Department of Commerce; in the 13 past months to September 2001, over 26 million more American got online (Iwaarden, Wiele, Ball %26 Millen, 2004, p. 947). The Internet explosion has opened a wide range of ways to a new electronic world. Consumers are now able to utilize the Internet for a variety of targets such as research, communication, online banking, and even shopping. With these advantages, the Internet is quickly becoming the main technique of communication and of running business conveniently. With a growing number of individuals turning towards the Internet and the world of e-commerce to shop, enterprise, make payments, and carry out online banking, new technological advancements will have to come about to make these transactions secure. However, not all consumers are participating in online transactions as a section of the Internet huge expansion. As more and more businesses continue to establish an online presence, they are finding that some consumers are still reluctant to switch in that same direction.

Background of study

                

Ability to buy without leaving your place is one of the most enthusiastic of many consumers. In addition, the use of Internet tools to search and compare prices provides an additional advantage regarding to the final decision of the consumer, because they can buy their products in favorable lowest available price (Haubl and Trifts, 2000).

Silverman, S.N. Stem, D.E. (2000). Limited to identify the characteristics of those taking the possible influence on the acceptance of Internet shopping that The study has been assumed that people with the goal of Internet shopping than they used new version as individuals in all areas and new version in certain areas, more interest in using the Internet have to buy. On the other hand the rate of innovation moderating relationship quality people uses the Internet and shopping online. It should be noted that in addition to feature a custom product aspects also be considered. Based on the findings of Liang, T. P., %26 Huang, J. S. (1998). should be careful which products to offer in electronic markets are more suitable . Because different types of products will influence acceptance of Internet shopping.

To attract customers for the company’s who following e-commerce method for Internet activities should be profitable. It must be also presented to the various services. Services and facilities that cause the customer’s motivation to buy (in the present and future).Therefore, website content  services that are provided on the website should be the customer’s needs and interests intended to create facilities and even

private sectors to provide. 

According to Nielsen Global online survey ‘ Internet shopping Habits Globally’ (2007), more than half of the internet users have made at least one purchase online. Among internet users, the highest percentage shopping online is found in South Korea, where 99 percent of those with internet access have used it to shop, followed by the UK ( 97%),  Germany (97%), Japan (97%) with the U.S. eight, at 94 percent. Online shopping behavior refers to the process of purchasing services or product through internet, this process encompasses five steps. In online shopping process, when consumer recognize their need for particular product or service they refer to internet and seek for need-related information. In addition,  purchasing product without leaving your place is one of the great interest to many consumers and another advantage of online shopping for buyers is they can use internet tools for searching the product or service price and then comparison with each other and finally they are enable to choose the lowest available price. Regarding to studies, online shopping has been emerged quite recently as an interface for transactions between consumers and firms.

Internet shopping is changing the way consumers buy goods and services, and quickly evolved into a global phenomenon. Many companies have begun to use the Internet to reduce marketing costs, and consequently reducing the prices of their products and services to maintain a competitive market in the future. Companies also are using the internet to convey and communicate well the information and actually to present their products as well as taking feedback of their performance and enhance their turnover and also customer`s satisfaction. Customers use the Internet not only to buy products online, but also to compare prices, products, aspects and service facilities; they will receive the products they buy, from a specific store.

. For various consumers there are still numerous concerns about security and transferring personal data through the Internet. There is a difference among the number of consumers who visit a website and the number of real purchases being made. Despite the large number of people who utilize the Internet everyday and observe various shopping sites, the number of consumers who do not quit their shopping carts but actually complete a purchase averages to only about three percent. This leaves a large segment of the Internet population as non-participants in online transactions compared to those who completely accomplish transactions online and make purchases. Instead, these non-participants could abandon the purchase completely or accomplish the transaction in an offline setting.

Problem Statement

In contrast, one of the great concerned is trust and security. For instance, recent statistics shown that in Malay people approximately is about 30% did not commit with the online shopping, while one of significant factors in electronic commerce is trust. In order to increase online shopping in Malaysia  , understanding consumer online shopping behavior and factors influencing this behavior when shopping online should be given priority. Researches indicate that majority of Malaysian (76%) specially young people were using internet for non-shopping activities such as seeking for information , entertainment , playing games and communication with others.

There are some barriers which have contributed to the unwillingness of Malaysian people because they afraid that their personal information will be stolen by others. Despite the potential in Malaysian people, there is still lack of understanding towards online shopping in Malaysia.

Objective of study

This research conducted to find factors influencing consumers towards online shopping. It seeks for understanding and examining whether or not factors such as website quality and internet advertising influence consumer choice of online buying. The study is also determine to examine the perceptions of adopters and also those who are reluctant of online shopping in respect of demographic profile, consumers’ expectations of online stores, as well as, its particular advantages and problems. It is worth mentioning that adopters are Internet users who have purchased online, while it is more likely that a group of people have never purchased online.

The study is based on previous research carried out by Teo (2006). Besides, by understanding the reasons why consumers buying online or not, online stores would be able to compound appropriate marketing strategies, moderate consumers’ concerns and convince even more people being moved from offline to online shopping (Teo, 2006). In the first portion, the literature review regarding consumers’ online buying behavior and the elements that encouraging or discourage online shopping is presented.

Significance of the Study

Attitude directly influence decision making and so the group with more positive attitude should be the target market. The significance of the study actually is about assessing and understanding factors and also different facets in which playing a fundamental role in online shopping and predominantly is vital in order to shop online. The number of individuals should be increased in terms of those who have intention to carry out online shopping because the expansion of internet is nowadays more observable in the people`s life. So the whole world is going to behave in this way to store their time and cost and enhance their technological status and used to purchase their requirement in online setting.

Literature Review

As Internet usage is increasing, so is online shopping especially in those countries whose marketing infrastructures are well developed. Consumers can shop at anytime and have access to products not available in their geographic region. Furthermore, they are now able to access the Internet, not only from their personal computers, but from advanced electronic devices such as Palm Pilots and mobile phones. Also, due to an increase in high-speed Internet access connections, lower connection costs, and increasing consumer competence, e-commerce activity will continue to grow as the availability and ease with which the Internet provides consumers the ability to handle needed tasks increasingly develops.  In conjunction with the increases in Internet  capabilities, it is estimated that about 53% of Internet  users in the United States have made an online  purchase . However, not all consumers are turning to the Internet for shopping. While the  number of Internet users who have made a purchase  at one time is more than half in the United States, this  does not explain the disparity between the number of  visits websites recorded and the number of actual  purchases made online.

One report shows that although a web site may receive millions of visitors, only about 3% of those visits result in a purchase online, and according to another study, about 65% of online shopping carts are abandoned before a purchase is completed. An explanation of these occurrences is that the majority of consumers are going online to window-shop with plans to make their purchases in a more traditional, offline setting.  There have been several reasons examined in prior studies as to why some consumers have a preference for more traditional, offline means of purchasing products and services. One study found that consumers did not complete online purchases due to the intangibility of the purchase. Some consumers have to satisfy certain sensory needs such as touch, taste, or smell, before making a purchase decision.

Also, for some consumers, although visual images  are provided with products or services, their sight needs may still not be satisfied. Another study found that as uncertainty in consumers about purchasing goods due to an inability to satisfy sensory needs increases, perceptions of risk with transactions increase. Even with precautionary research into a good or service and its vending company, every online transaction is perceived to have a basic level of risk by consumers due to issues of intangibility that cannot be avoided, such as hackers and whether the actual purchase choice is satisfactory based on information gleaned.

Consumers have a basic wonder about the security and accuracy of their  online transactions. Especially for goods or services that consumers perceive to involve higher commitments, such as motor vehicles or computer cleaning services provided online, the intangibility of goods for some consumers can have a significant impact on their online purchasing decisions.  It has been reported that consumers have a low perception and trust of online merchants, making them unwilling to make purchases online. The results  of a survey of 9700 online consumers showed that three out of five respondents did not trust web merchants. Several studies also reported that consumers are concerned with their online security and privacy as online transactions still possess risk of information theft and fraud. This may be attributed to the fact that approximately 59% of online companies report at least one security breach each year.

 In addition, it has been shown that approximately two-thirds of Americans are concerned with possible threats of Internet hackers and are not satisfied with current systems designed to protect them from such attacks. A study of risk perceptions also indicates that consumers are concerned with undesirable outcomes and uncertainty of their purchases after purchasing a product online. Consumers, therefore, are less likely to make purchases online if they perceive a higher risk.  Offline settings are not hindered by some of the online perceptions of risk.

Offline settings are better able to provide some of the immediate satisfactions and sensory perceptions necessary to various consumers’ purchasing decisions that lower associated risk perceptions with transactions, such as personal shopping assistance by personnel and  immediate rights to a product or service. The availability of face-to-face interaction with business  personnel to address consumer concerns is less prevalent and immediate in the online environment.  Retailers are also finding that some consumers still prefer the offline ability to feel the immediate  benefits of products rather than having to worry about a product or service while they wait for  satisfaction via delivery by mail. This can increase the level of perceived risks with online transactions  and affect the consumer’s purchasing decision process . The perception of risk associated with a  company and their online presence can also be affected by previous encounters and also affect their  decisions to complete purchases without sensory perceptions available in traditional brick-and-mortar  stores. Consumers’ previous experiences with online purchases, or lack thereof, can be a significant  influence of levels of risk perception by consumers and their purchasing decisions . Negative  experiences increase levels of risk perception with online purchasing and hamper not only a business’s  likelihood of retaining customers but can make it more difficult for other online businesses to gain  initial customers .

 In order to identify the differences between consumers who prefer online shopping and those who prefer offline shopping, this study examines how  consumers perceive online shopping and which factors are perceived differently between consumers who prefer online shopping and consumers who prefer offline (physical store) shopping. The findings from this study will allow online businesses to be better informed of what draws consumers or prohibits them from coming to their websites. The better an online business understands the perceptions of these shoppers, the higher the chance that they can attract and retain customers.

References

1. Alomaim, N., Tunca, M. Z., %26 Zairi, M. (2003).  Customer satisfaction @ virtual organizations. Management Decision, 41(7), 666-670,

2. Attran, M., %26 VanLaar, I. (1999). Privacy and security over the Internet: how to secure your

Personal information and company data. Information Management %26 Computer Security, 7(5), 241.

3. Belanger, F., Hiller, J.S., %26 Smith, W.J. (2002). Trustworthiness in Electronic Commerce: the

Role of privacy, security, and site attributes. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11, 245-270.

4. Betts, M. (2001). Turning browsers into buyers. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42(2), 8-9.

PRIVACY AND SECURITY ISSUES IN ONLINE SHOPPING

Shopping online has never been so easy. With the flourishing numbers of online merchants, people nowadays have various choices to do their shopping. Big companies such as eBay and amazon.com have introduced many value added features to help the customers to decide what to shop for. With features such as price comparison, product photos and user reviews, consumers can shop easily and smartly without even going to the stores and having such a hard time looking for the products they want. All they have to do are just browse for the product they want in the website and within a few mouse clicks they are off. Such simplicity is what makes online shopping appealing for consumers. The question is why do many people still deny shopping online? Well, for most people, privacy and security issues are their concerns. Hence, here I will discuss customers’ perception of privacy and security issues, the reality of such issues and ways to avoid those issues, all based on some trustworthy sources I have found.

To know customers’ perception of customer and security issues, I reviewed a scholarly article entitled ‘Consumer Perceptions of Privacy and Security Risks for Online Shop’ produced in the Journal of Consumer Affairs. In the United States, more than half of the adult population uses the Internet and from that number, approximately half have shopped online (Sefton, qtd. in Miyazaki and Fernandez 28). Previous studies had shown that Internet users as a whole agreed that privacy and security issues are vital for them to shop online (Rohm and Milne, qtd. in Miyazaki and Fernandez 29). Most of them regard their personal information as their main concern (U.S. FTC, qtd. in Miyazaki and Fernandez 29). In the research conducted by Miyazaki and Fernandez, who are the authors of the articles themselves, privacy and security issues accounted for more than 65 percent of consumers’ main concern as oppose to the other 35 for shopping inconveniences and others (35). They also concluded that more experienced Internet users tend to have more concern regarding privacy issues but less concern on security issues (38). Nevertheless, consumers still consider both as their main concern for online shopping as suggested in the survey (35).

Now, after knowing that privacy and security issues are vital for consumers in online shopping, I would like to know the emphasis in the real world. From an article titled ‘The Myth of Secure E-Shopping’ published in PC World, the reality of such issue is revealed. While most consumers trust big and well established online merchant such as CD Universe, Travelocity, Columbia House and Ikea, these big companies still receive frequent security threats (Kandra 29). Joseph McDonnell, a CEO of online security firm IShop Secure even confessed that all online firms must have received threats of some sorts (29). He added by saying that hackers could easily infiltrate and get customers personal information online as online shoppers are not anonymous. Experts also discover that security measures taken by online retailers are insufficient (29). For instance, data encryption only applies in actual transfer of customer data but not in the database which is ironically the most common targets for hackers. Some other sites however, do not even have privacy and security policy posted implying that they do not protect their customers (Hairell 30). This is what happened to Bibliofind when it was hacked hence compromising its customers’ credit information (Kandra 32). Apart from the retailers themselves, credit card processing firms and third party sites also receive threats (Kandra 30). Creditcards.com once had disclosed that someone had infiltrated its site and posted more than 55000 credit card numbers on the Internet. So, from all these indications, I can see that online shopping is not totally safe.

However, customer rights and security aspects are not just the responsibility of online merchants. To uphold them, the consumers themselves need to act. According to ‘Ten Things Your Mother Never Told You about Online Shopping’ published in Yahoo! Internet Life, to be an ace consumer, online shoppers needs to prepare themselves with some basics (Halpin 61). As the prominent method of payment is credit card, consumers should be more aware in handling it (62). They should never disclose their credit information via e-mail. Some of the credit card issuers also have some sorts of protection that consumers should apply for. Apart from that, consumers should limit themselves from releasing unnecessary personal information such as age and income to protect their privacy (Hood, qtd. in Halpin 62). Also, as Todd Richter who is the president of Girl shop (an e-commerce site) had said, consumers should always be aware of the security technology used by merchant sites (62). Technologies such as Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and VeriSign play vital part in distinguishing one site from another. Nonetheless, consumers should always be alert of the privacy and customer policy in each site they tend to buy from (Halpin 62). Lastly, if there are still dissatisfactions, consumers could always report them to consumer-related agencies such as Better Business Bureau or Federal Trade Commission (Halpin 63).

Thus, after reviewing these three reliable sources related to the privacy and security issues of online shopping, I can see some interconnections between them. By common sense, anyone who tends to shop online will think twice before they buy anything as to consider the privacy and security issues related to it. This is proven in my first source (‘Consumer Perceptions of Privacy and Security Risks for Online Shopping’) through the survey. People are always conscious about their privacy and security. However, this is not the case in the real world. As my second source (‘The Myth of Secure E-Shopping’) has proposed, even though online merchants have tried their best to beef up the security, threats and attacks still prevail. For this reason, consumer should act fast to protect their privacy when shopping online. My third source (’10 Things Your Mother Never Told You about Online Shopping’) explains many ways that consumers could do to enhance the privacy and security aspect apart from what online merchants have done for the same reason. Taking all these contents as a whole, I would say that in any situation, people can still shop online safely provided they understand the reality and take some precautions above all.

There are many factors that market researchers have identified as determinants of a consumer’s buying decision (Goldsmith, Bridges, and Freidan, 2001; Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1996-97).    Jarvenpaa and Todd categorized these factors into four constructs of consumer perception as:  product perception, shopping experience, perceived risk, and service quality.    These constructs are surveyed below.

Product Perception

Product perception, sometimes called product understanding (Dillon and Reif, 2004) or product value (Crisp,  Jarvenpaa, and Todd, 1997), consists of price, product quality, and variety.    These are the most salient product perceptions mentioned in the e-market literature.   Price is the monetary payout of the customers and is the cost of purchasing; it is important since pricing strategy can be easily implemented over the internet.   Quality is generally defined as overall excellence or superiority of the products, as stated by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (hereinafter referred to as PZB) (1985) from the consumer ?s viewpoint. Product quality, which also accommodates service quality  if the purchasing target is service instead of physical product, should be distinguished  from the (supporting) service quality which is another construct to be discussed below; product quality has long been discussed in the literature from  different points of  view (Garvin, 1984;  Harari, 1993).   Product quality perception is a particular product’s ability to satisfy the consumers compared to alternative products (Monroe and Krishnan, 1985); it is also a consumer evaluation of a product’s outstanding value and performance (PZB, 1988).   Thus, perceived product quality can be defined as the customer’s perception or the judgment about the overall excellence or superiority of the products or service with respect to its intended purpose relative to alternatives (Aaker, 1991; PZB, 1988). Since the perceived product quality is a pivotal reason to buy (Aaker, 1991), price is the cost paid by the customers, and variety gives the customers more alternatives to choose the products and hence motivate the customers to visit the website; these three factors were empirically justified as important factors for internet shopping (Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1996-97; Dillon and Reif, 2004). Hence, we have the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 1: Product perception affects purchase intention.

Shopping Experience

In this study, we quote the definition of shopping experience proposed by Arnold, Reynolds, Ponder, and Lueg  (2005).    They deemed shopping experience could be classified into two categories. The first one is the experience from  the  salesperson’s encounter, and  such interpersonal factors include  salesperson’s efforts, interpersonal  engagement,  problem resolution, interpersonal distance, and sale personnel’s time commitment; the other is non-interpersonal factors  which include unanticipated acquisition and value or vice versa.  In addition, Kerin, Jain, and Howard (1992) considered shopping experience as the store atmosphere, customer-related services and a set of policies. Since the two  definitions of shopping experience are quite similar and complementary to each other, by combining the two definitions, shopping experience will be defined as ‘the  set of  all  services and policies related to the  store-atmosphere and  customers, including interpersonal interaction, sales staff’s efforts and commitment and  relevant policies provided to  please or attract customers.’The shopping experience in the cyber world is quite different from conventional stores.   Effort, life style compatibility, playfulness have been mentioned (Baty and Lee, 1995;  Goldsmith, 2000; Hoffman and  Novak, 1997); social interaction was added by Jarvenpaa and Todd (1996-97). Effort is the amount of time and energy spent in locating merchandise and making purchase decisions. Life style compatibility considers the consumers? life style and shopping habits.   Playfulness refers to feelings of fun in website navigation when purchasing.  Social interaction means the interaction with people when shopping on the web, such as joining discussion groups, soliciting user experiences etc. However, convenience (in  inquiring, in ordering), consistency (between expected and actual  product/service), and playfulness were identified as the most salient factors in Taiwan’s online shopping (Cheng, 2000);  in this study, we adopt  Cheng?s  operational definition of shopping experience for accommodating Taiwan?s internet  environment. Since consumers with happy shopping experience are obviously more satisfactory and since it has been shown to  influence consumers? value perception (Kerin, Jain, and Howard, 1992) and repurchase intention (Jarvenpaa and Todd,  1997; Arnold, Reynolds, Ponder, and Lueg, 2005), thus hypothesis 2 is proposed as: Hypothesis 2: The shopping experience affects purchase intention.

Service Quality

We may call service in question as ‘supporting service’ which accompanies the main product/service and facilitates the purchasing process.   The concept of service quality whether the quality meets or exceeds the consumer’s expectation; therefore, the consumer’s perception of service quality is the perceived gap after comparing the consumer’s  expectations of service and the actual feeling of the service (PZB 1985).  While the consumer’s expectation of service  quality is often  affected by  the influence of four sources:  past experience, word-of-mouth communication, personal  needs and external communication, service quality is a subjective attitudinal response showing the consumer’s overall  superiority assessment of the service itself. PZB considered service quality as a long-term overall judgment on service and can be evaluated from the attitudinal viewpoint. Service quality results from comparing the consumer’s expectations of service and the actually perceived service performance. In 1998 they further stated that the service quality is the excellence level generated from the interaction between the service provider and the customer in the service delivery process; they also emphasized service quality should be defined from the customer side, rather than from the vendor side.  A conceptual model was proposed on service quality (PZB 1985) and 10 determinants of service quality were put  forward; they were reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security,  understanding/knowing and tangibles and  a  measuring scale  containing 5 constructs  (SERVQUAL)  was developed (PZB 1988) and later corrected (PZB 1994). A direct measurement of consumers? service quality called SERVPERF was proposed by Cronin and Taylor (1992) and was shown to have better predictive ability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity than SERVQUAL. For online shopping, e-service quality was measured by different researchers.  Parvenpaa and Todd  (1996-97)  proposed  responsiveness, reliability, tangibility, empathy, and assurance as the factors that affect consumers? attitude.   Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Malhotra (2005) suggested efficiency, system availability, fulfillment, and privacy as the major factors to be considered.   Collier and Penstock (2006) recommend a scale containing the formative indicators instead of the reflexive indicators.  In this study, we followed Cheng?s (2000) scale which is essentially Parvenpaa and

Todd?s scheme (see Table 1 below)  except for  some adjustment on the indicators to reflect online bookstores? characteristics.    Service quality has long been recognized as an important factor in forming consumers? attitudes, intentions, and actions as poor service quality discourages any decision to buy (PZB 1985; Zeithaml, 1988; Zeithaml, ET.  Al, 1996).    Thus, the following hypothesis is suggested: Hypothesis 3: Service quality affects purchase intention.

Perceived Risk

Perceived risk was developed from psychology by Bauer (1967) and since then has been widely discussed in consumer behavior literature and regarded as one of the basic concepts.  Bauer pointed out that consumer behavior can be regarded as a kind of ‘risk-taking’, because the consumer cannot ensure the results from using the products at the purchasing moment, thus in fact, the consumer bears a certain risk.   Differing views were put forward by researchers as follows:Cox (1967) considered that perceived risks lies in the notion that consumer behavior is a goal-oriented activity,  and purchase of the product is associated with this goal; its acceptable expectation level is measured by the degree of  achievement to this goal.   However, the consumers may not be aware of any risk component so that their behavior may be affected sub-consciously and this may influence some direct actions.  Therefore, to identify the existence and the extent of the perceived risk, it is often required to infer from the behavior procedure.  Every time the consumers buy, there is associated a set of purchase goals; when the expectation level of purchase cannot be attained, the unexpected negative results from the perceived risk. The consumers themselves may not be aware of the purchase goals and the perceived risk, but their behavior is deeply affected by the perceived risk. Roselius (1971) believed the consumer’s most effective risk reduction strategies were ‘brand loyalty’ and ‘major  brand image’, and ‘purchasing expensive products’ was the least helpful.  In the meantime, he proposed four methods to solve it when the consumers were aware of the existence of risks, based on their preferences of the methods to reduce  risk: (1) reducing the possibility of failure, or to moderate the seriousness of the consequences; (2) converting a possible  loss into another more bearable loss; (3) deferring purchase, and (4) adopting purchasing and absorb the risk. For internet shopping, the risk types and/or contents are quite different from conventional ones due to dissimilar business models and transaction processes that induce more uncertainty for online shopping.   After analyzing the questionnaires, Jarvenpaa and Todd (1996-97) classified the risk types as follows.

Economic or financial risk: This is the monetary losses due to poor purchase choice, inability to return goods, etc. In this study, economic risk refers to credit card embezzlement. Social risk: This originally refers to the fact that shopping on the web will be considered as imprudent or socially unacceptable, but as online activity becomes popular, we refer it as the embarrassment of confronting people in purchasing private-oriented books.

Performance risk: This refers to situation where product/service fails to meet one’s expectation in online book shopping, in this study since the book quality is rather fixed, thus we refer to safety of payment methods. Personal risk: This refers to the harmful personal consequences to the consumer resulting from online shopping.  However, any losses can be attributed to this type according to the definition; thus, we regard this type of risk as transaction data leakage.

Privacy risk:  This refers to the personal private information leakage when offered to the online vendors. The aforementioned risks certainly cause negative utility for the customers since ‘uncertainty’, ‘discomfort’ and/or ‘anxiety’ arises from the above-mentioned risks when making an online purchase decision (Dowling and Staelin, 1994; Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1996-97; Bhatnagar, Misra, and Rao, 2000) and steps are taken to avoid such risks.  Hence, the following hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 4: The perceived risks affect purchase intention.

Advantage of online shopping:

24 hour accessibility
Comparison among the different product
Cheaper price

Disadvantage of online shopping:

Time to delivery
Unreliability
Difficult to Returns and exchanges

Research Methodology

Study design:

This study is based on hypothesis testing regarding the fact that data were collected only once to answer to research questions through questionnaire, concerning the fact of customer perceptions toward online shopping.

Main objectives:

To understand correlation between website quality and online shopping behavior.
To understand correlation between advertising and online shopping behavior.

Sources and Data Collection Method:

A structured questionnaire was used to collect the primary data to answer the research questions and objectives regarding to effectiveness of well designed and high quality website and Advertising for such a website on online shopping for Malaysian customer. Therefore the survey questions consist two specific sections in addition to demographic part and each of them contains questions to reflect different parts of the study. The Budget constraints in terms of time and cost and difficulty to access to the potential respondents in Malaysia lead us to use the convenience sampling method.

Therefore, some specific places inside the were chosen for distributing the questionnaires. For instance some places like SURIA KLCC, CAPSQUERE, and PAVILLION were chosen for separating questionnaire. The survey was conducted generally via face-to-face interview and also hands over the questionnaire.

Before we chosen face to face interview we sent the questionnaire through email to more than 75 people but unfortunately only 15 people replied in one week. Then we switch our data collecting method and we refer to personal interview.

Therefore, the survey responses provided us with the valuable inputs to this study for better understanding the online shopping practices in Malaysia

Total 75 questionnaires were distributed; while each of responses received was screened properly for error, incomplete and/or missing responses. . However, those responses that had more than 10% of the questions in the survey questionnaire that had been left unanswered or incorrectly answered were deducted from data analysis. Having done the appropriate screening process, returned questionnaires were considered as unusable and the rest 60 responses were used which were considered as complete and valid for final analysis and hypothesis testing.

Measures

We used questionnaire as an instrument to obtain required data for analysis of the hypothesis we developed.

In this study we used 1- LIKERT scale and

In Likert scale anchored from ‘strongly disagree’ (1) to ‘strongly agree’ (5) to measure relation between website quality and online shopping behavior and also correlation between advertising and online purchasing.

Hypothesis development

From the discussion of the theoretical framework, two hypotheses were formulated to test the relationship between each of the two independent variables and dependent variable. The two hypotheses which this study has been conducted on it are:

H1: High quality website positively associated with the online shopping

H2: Advertisement positively associated with the intention to online shopping.

Questionnaire

Please circle the numbers responding the most appropriate responses for you in respect of the following items:

1-      Gender :                                    Male                                                     Female

2-      Age:                         15-20                           20-25                            25-30                                0ver 30

3-      Marital status:                        single                         married                      widowed                         other

4-      Monthly income:            no income                        1000-3500RM                        Above 6000RM                              3500-6000 RM

5-      Occupation :                  student                                  business field

                                                       Housewife                              other

6-      Educational background:                vocational                        high school degree

                        

                                                             College degree                  professional degree

7-      How long have you been using internet services?

More than 10 years                                        5-10 years

1-5years                                                             less than 1 year

8-      How many hours a week do you devote to online visiting website?

Less than 5 hr                                                                1-5 hrs

10-16 hr                                                                           more than 16 hr

Website quality

Strongly  Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

10-Web site appearance is one of the important factor for attracting internet users

(Appearance)

11-The site should load quickly – even for dialup users

(Quick Loading)

12- The website must be including Privacy Policy up (especially if you collect data, email, names, and web analytics tracking cookies)

(Security)

13-Site Map must be available

(Sitemap)

14-All links (internal and external) must valid and active.

(Validity)

Advertising

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

15-Special offer is important factor for attracting me to online purchasing via internet

(Promotion)

16-When you see an ad ( banner or pop-up), you are likely to click on it to get more information about the product/ service

(Attractiveness)

17-The claims made in the ads were believable

(Believability)

18-The ads should be original

(Originality)

19- On which of these media do you consider the advertisement is effective way for attracting people for online shopping?

             Internet                               Billboard                           TV                             magazine                       

Analyzing results and discussion

Below are analyses of demographic data: 1- gender, 2- age, 3- marital status, 4- monthly income, 5- occupation, 6- educational background, 7- internet using duration, 8- online visiting website.

As it obvious in this pie 46.67% of respondent were female and 53.33% were male

    

                                     

This pie chart shows that 35% of respondents were aged between 15-20years old, 30% were between 20-25, 18.33% were over 30 and 16.67% were age between 25-30 years.

Majority of respondents approximately is about 40% was single and 30% were married.

                                       

41.67% of respondent had monthly income between 1000-3500RM, 31.67% hadn’t income or maybe they had monthly income below 1000RM and 5% had over 6000RM monthly income.

   

                                              

Majority of respondent 46.67% were student and minority of them mention other without specifying their job.

                                         

As it display in this pie 38.33% of respondent had high school degree, 36.67% had answered vocational and just 6.67% had professional degree and 18.33% had college degree.

                                            

                                  

                                     

                                        

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Factor Analysis:

The following table at the beginning provides some descriptive analysis regarding to demographic information

Table 1 :Statistics

Gender

Age

Marital_

Status

Monthly_

Income

Occupation

Educational_

Background

Internet using_

duration

Online_Visiting_website

N

Valid

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

Missing

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Std. Deviation

.503

1.112

.983

.864

.841

.910

1.066

1.112

Variance

.253

1.237

.966

.746

.707

.828

1.135

1.236

Following the conducting the factor analysis on all the items that measures ordinal variable, 9 variables extracted, each one representing a unique concept or in other word a specific perception of the respondents. Following table illustrate the mean for each item and corresponding standard of deviation. The first 5 items measure quality effectiveness of websites and the last 4 items measures advertising effectiveness toward using online shopping.

Table 2: Descriptive Statistics

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Appearance

60

1.00

5.00

3.1333

1.08091

Quick Loading

60

1.00

5.00

3.2667

1.00620

Security

60

1.00

5.00

3.0167

1.08130

Sitemap

60

1.00

5.00

3.2833

1.13633

Validity

60

1.00

5.00

3.2000

1.05445

Promotion

60

1.00

5.00

3.0667

1.11791

Attractiveness

60

1.00

5.00

3.2000

1.20451

Believability

60

1.00

5.00

3.0167

1.12734

Originality

60

1.00

5.00

3.3000

1.07829

Valid N (listwise)

60

But because our scale for our main question is base of the likert scale we have to use the factor analysis. In this project factor analysis was employed to explore the underlying factors associated with 9 items by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Generally, KMO is used to assess which variables need to drop from the model due to multi Collinearity. The value of KMO varies from 0 to 1, and KMO overall should be .60 or higher to perform factor analysis. If not then it is necessary to drop the variables with lowest anti image value until KMO overall rise above .60. Result for the Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity and the KMO reveal that both were highly significant and concluded that this variable was suitable for the factor analysis (Table 3).

Table 3 : KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.716

Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

539.013

Df

36

Sig.

.000

It can be seen the KMO is more than 0.6 is acceptable and it’s in mediocre range, it means no need for drop any variables, besides P-value is less than 0.001, means we can proceed with factor analysis.

Table 4: Correlation Matrix

Appearance

Quick Loading

Security

Sitemap

Validity

Promotion

Attractiveness

Believability

Originality

Correlation

Appearance

1.000

.512

.491

.548

.407

.413

.461

.888

.445

Quick Loading

.512

1.000

.635

.630

.891

.511

.571

.474

.878

Security

.491

.635

1.000

.589

.666

.826

.635

.473

.577

Sitemap

.548

.630

.589

1.000

.560

.479

.887

.433

.483

Validity

.407

.891

.666

.560

1.000

.578

.475

.368

.781

Promotion

.413

.511

.826

.479

.578

1.000

.481

.456

.503

Attractiveness

.461

.571

.635

.887

.475

.481

1.000

.409

.371

Believability

.888

.474

.473

.433

.368

.456

.409

1.000

.456

Originality

.445

.878

.577

.483

.781

.503

.371

.456

1.000

Besides, the correlation of the items are between 0.3 to 0.9 which means all the items correlation is acceptable, in this case there is no duplication, and all have a association.

Correlation Matrix

Website Quality

Advertising

Intention to online shopping

Correlation

Website Quality

1.000

.728

.413

Advertising

.728

1.000

.133

Intention to online shopping

.413

.133

1.000

Moreover, we grouped the questions regarding to every hypothesis and again make a correlation between them and dependent factor, it can be seen although there is a good correlation between website quality and advertising and website quality and intention to online shopping, but poor correlation between advertising and  dependent factor is transparent.

Factor analysis was carried out on the effective factor on online shipping to group together the variables that are highly correlated.

The process of factor analysis involves two stages:

1-      Factor extraction to make an initial decision on the number of factors underlying asset of measured variables of interest

2-      Factor rotation for easy interpretability of factor extraction result and for making final decision about the underlying factors. The underlying structure of 9 items was analyzed using principal component analysis followed by varimax rotation because we have an independent variable. The factor analyses revealed two dimensions underlying effective factor on online shopping for Malaysian customers.

They are: (F1), High Quality websites (F2), Advertising. The total variance explained by factors is indicated in Table 5, which suggests that the two factors account for 74% of the total variance. Factor 1, which accounted for about 61% of total variance.

Table 5 : Total Variance Explained

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

5.524

61.376

61.376

5.524

61.376

61.376

2

1.153

12.810

74.185

1.153

12.810

74.185

3

.958

10.644

84.829

4

.754

8.376

93.205

5

.203

2.259

95.464

6

.167

1.852

97.316

7

.131

1.453

98.769

8

.072

.797

99.566

9

.039

.434

100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

In fact, each of above component represents a factor that explains the total variances in all the 8 original items as listed above. As shown in the Table.2, the Eigen values for just the two components are above the value 1, thus they are to be considered significant. It can be seen in the Table 2, each of these components explains 61.376 %, 12.810%, of the total variance respectively, among the all 9 items.

It has been illustrated in Figure 1, There is a dramatic steep slope from component 1 to component 2, hence most of the variance is explained by factor 1 alone and small portion by component 2 and then again there is a steep slope to component 3, Whereas, the slop of the diagram change gently from component 4 to component 9 which again indicate that most of variance is explained by the first 2 components and subsequent factor do not contribute much in explained variance.

Figure 1

Now we founded that we have a two factor, so the question now is each item is regarding to which factor, for this we look at the component matrix table.

Factor Loading

 Rotated Component Matrixa

Component

Cronbach’s
alpha

1

2

Appearance

.704

Quick Loading

.653

Security

.829

0.801

Sitemap

.596

Validity

.828

Promotion

.774

Attractiveness

.514

Believability

.798

0.721

Originality

.750

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

 Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 3 iterations.

All the Cronbach’s alpha value for components is well above value of 0.721 which indicate to good level of internal consistency.

Seemingly, component 1 represents five first variances in the five first items in the questionnaire and it is designated as Security effectiveness. Moreover, the other components are designated as Believability effectiveness.

Hypothesis testing

Due to measuring the concept based on a five points Likert Scale which gives ordinal data, this study has been manipulated the Factor Scores to analyze hypotheses. 

 

 

 

H1: High quality (Secure) website positively associated with the online shopping

Correlations

Intention to online _shopping

Security

Intention to online _shopping

Pearson Correlation

1

.418

Sig. (2-tailed)

.002

N

60

60

Security

Pearson Correlation

.418

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.002

N

60

60

Base of the Pearson correlation test, the r value between Security (high quality) and intention to buy is 0.418, which is more than 0.3, so there is a significant association between high quality (Secure) website and intention for online shopping. And p-value is less than 0.05, therefore the H1 is accepted.

H2: Advertisement (believability of ads) positively associated with the intention to online shopping.

The Pearson Correlation test applied to test the significance and direction of relationship. Results are illustrated in following table.

Correlations

Believability

Intention to online _shopping

Believability

Pearson Correlation

1

.073

Sig. (2-tailed)

.579

N

60

60

Intention to online _shopping

Pearson Correlation

.073

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.579

N

60

60

Having considered above table, The Pearson Correlation Coefficient value equals to 0.73 which is lower than 0.3 indicating there is any neither positive nor negative association between Advertisement (believability of ads) and intention to online shopping. Thus, the hypothesis H2 is rejected.

ANOVA Test: (Optional)

All we are looking for through conducting this test is whether selected factors can be a good predictor for modeling an online shopping behavior or not, so we apply the ANOVA test. Usually it should be done at the beginning of projects.

Anova

Model

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

7.815

9

.868

.604

.000a

Residual

71.835

50

1.437

Total

79.650

59

a. Predictors: (Constant), Originality, Attractiveness, Believability, Promotion, Validity, Security, Appearance, Sitemap, Quick Loading

b. Dependent Variable: Online shopping behavior

The P-value from the ANOVA table is less than 0.001, which means that at least one of the variables can be used to model the online shopping behavior.

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

Durbin-Watson

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

1

.313a

. 781

-.064

1.199

.781

.604

9

50

.787

1.549

a. Predictors: (Constant), Originality, Attractiveness, Believability, Promotion, Validity, Security, Appearance, Sitemap, Quick Loading

b. Dependent Variable: Dependent Variable: Online shopping behavior

                       

The R-Square value is 0.781, which means 78.1% of the variation can be explained by these factors, the Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.549 is not far from 2 and it’s correct.

Appendix: (Descriptive analysis)

These tables are some details regarding to demographic questions

Gender

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

32

52.5

53.3

53.3

Female

28

45.9

46.7

100.0

Total

60

98.4

100.0

Missing

System

1

1.6

Total

61

100.0

Age

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

15-20

21

34.4

35.0

35.0

20-25

18

29.5

30.0

65.0

25-30

10

16.4

16.7

81.7

Over 30

11

18.0

18.3

100.0

Total

60

98.4

100.0

Missing

System

1

1.6

Total

61

100.0

Marital_Status

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Single

24

39.3

40.0

40.0

Married

18

29.5

30.0

70.0

widowed

13

21.3

21.7

91.7

Other

5

8.2

8.3

100.0

Total

60

98.4

100.0

Missing

System

1

1.6

Total

61

100.0

Monthly_Income

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

No income

19

31.1

31.7

31.7

1000-3500RM

25

41.0

41.7

73.3

3500-6000RM

13

21.3

21.7

95.0

Above 6000RM

3

4.9

5.0

100.0

Total

60

98.4

100.0

Missing

System

1

1.6

Total

61

100.0

Occupation

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Student

28

45.9

46.7

46.7

Business Filed

23

37.7

38.3

85.0

Housewife

6

9.8

10.0

95.0

Other

3

4.9

5.0

100.0

Total

60

98.4

100.0

Missing

System

1

1.6

Total

61

100.0

Educational_Bachground

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Vocational

22

36.1

36.7

36.7

Highschool degree

23

37.7

38.3

75.0

College degree

11

18.0

18.3

93.3

Professional degree

4

6.6

6.7

100.0

Total

60

98.4

100.0

Missing

System

1

1.6

Total

61

100.0

Internet_using_duration

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

More than 10 years

11

18.0

18.3

18.3

5-10 years

13

21.3

21.7

40.0

1-5years

20

32.8

33.3

73.3

less than 1 year

16

26.2

26.7

100.0

Total

60

98.4

100.0

Missing

System

1

1.6

Total

61

100.0

Online_Visiting_website

Frequency

Percent

Valid Perce

Ems_salehi64@yahoo.com

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Online Payday Loans for Bad Credit – Accomplish Urgent Requirements on Time

April 18th, 2015 by admin

Looking for a thriving way out of deep financial problems? Well, you can trust on online payday loans for bad credit that the effective way that helps you get out of all financial troubles efficiently right on time. These loans are mainly planned for taking care of vital small term cash crisis. At the time when you fare not financially strong and earn monthly income but ensnared in uninvited fiscal crisis then, these loans are the ultimate way to come out from your financial hassles with ease. These loans are really proved as a great monetary protector when it comes to get additional funds faster.

Requirement for extra money can be arisen at any point of time without giving any previous warning? Even though emergency happenings are at the time when you are at the point of middle month, you are definitely in hot water. Nevertheless, you don’t need to get upset since online payday loans are really just solution for you to solve your financial urgencies on time. Good thing to get the money through these loans is that your application is not rejected because of your poor credit scores.

You being adverse credit scores holder because of these facts including defaults, arrears, CCJs, IVA, foreclosure, skipping of installments, late payments, missed payments, due payments, insolvency etc are also allowed to enjoy online payday loans for bad credit. Reason behind of it is that you are required to be an ideal borrower completing some normal grounds like to be 18 years of age, you are permanent citizen ofUnited Kingdom, you are holding a valid active checking account, you are having a permanent job and you are earning income at least £1000 per month.

There is no formality required to be completed in case of making funds immediately. That is all you have to fill out a simple online application form on the website of the loan, with some specific needs and then you have to forward it. After authenticating your details, the fund is transferred directly into your active bank account on the very same day of application. Finance that you make with online payday loans for bad credit can be ranging from £100 to £1000 for the repayment term of 14 to 30 days. The borrowed money has to be repaid within a time period of 14 to 30 days. You are absolutely freedom to use the fund for covering various expenses like paying grocery bills, credit card bills and many more.

James Anderson, an ace writer of financial related subjects, who has done his master in finance. He has been writing articles, blogs, press-releases on online payday loans for bad credit, cheap payday loans for bad credit and payday loans for bad credit from last few years.

Indian Request for Credit Scores Online

April 18th, 2015 by admin

CIBIL TransUnion score can be obtained online by making a payment via a credit/debit card or netbanking account, and authenticating by answering 5 questions about ones loans or credit cards, after which the report is indeed sent to the user on his registered e-mail i.d. The user only needs to send documents if authentication fails.

The CIBIL, the central agency which collects and maintains credit information of borrowers, and shares it with a closed user group of banks and financial institutions to determine their credit worthiness, will now allow individuals or companies to get a copy of their credit history and credit score.

Users can request for their CIBIL TransUnion score online by paying Rs 450 and sending a self attested copy of their identity proof and address proof by post. The report is then sent to users by post in 10 days time. According to TOI’s report, the user also needs to answer three questions based on his credit history, after which the report is released, however we did not find these conditions mentioned in the request page.

Credit reports are used by Banks, Financial Institutions, NBFCs, Housing Finance Companies and Credit Card companies to verify the credit worthiness of an individual/company before granting him/it a loan or a credit card. They are collated on the basis of borrowings, repayment history and other similar factors. So acces to one’s credit scores will enable him to keep a check of his credit worthiness and allow him to improve it by repaying debts on time.

Although, not all financial institutions were using CIBIL’s credit reports when it started, it has seen an increase in its members over the years and claims to have a database size of over 170 million consumer records and 6.5 million company records contributed by over 500 Members. So we’re assuming that most mainstream financial institutions take and share borrower information with the organization.Users can request for their CIBIL TransUnion score online by paying Rs 450 and sending a self attested copy of their identity proof and address proof by post. The report is then sent to users by post in 10 days time. According to TOI’s report, the user also needs to answer three questions based on his credit history, after which the report is released, however we did not find these conditions mentioned in the request page.

Apply for loans and credit cards online at http://www.deal4loans.com

How Do I Check My FICO Score Online for Free

April 15th, 2015 by admin

The internet is the best and the easiest medium which enables you to check your Fico score. Your credit score regarded as FICO score represents in figures, an estimation, after calculating your financial dealings, both of the present and past. The financial institutions like banks and other authorities that deal with lending of money get reassured whether as a client you are to be trusted or not, depending on your FICO score. If the financial institutions are there to lend you money, they also have the right to make sure of the fact whether the person they are lending the money is reliable and can pay back the money within the stipulated time or not. Your FICO credit acts as the indicator.

The higher your score in your credit report, you can buy the confidence of the financial institutions. You will be able to take your pick from a variety of financial institutions while applying for a loan. Your credit reports and your FICO score are the best tools available in the hands of the financial institutions to judge your reliability.

Calculating Your FICO Score

Calculating your FICO Score by means of a complicated mathematical formula is done taking into account your present and past financial dealings. There are a number of things that are taken into account; mainly your financial records are probed deeply. You income is assessed in terms of your expenditure, the debts that you have incurred are also considered. Whether you are involved in some sort of a loan with other financial institutions or have dues in car payments or have a host of credit cards that you used previously.

Your accountability factor in terms of repaying your loan is judged. If you are punctual and have maintained a desired level of consistency in paying back your loans, then you are likely to have a higher FICO score, otherwise not.  Calculation of your percentage score is done on the basis of the financial activities that you have been involved in, both in the past and the present.

However, it is imperative that you go through a copy of your credit report online frequently, so that you can check for any sort of frauds, errors or wrong information. You need to keep a tab on the credit report as any wrong information or errors will invariably harm your reputation and affect your credit score. With time, the whole system is becoming advanced and more transparent and you can readily get the required information, free copy of your FICO score via the internet.

The Average FICO Score in the USA

The average FICO Score varies but the range is 300 to 850. Now Americans who boast of good credit score have 850 in their kitty, having the highest score. For that matter a credit score above 700 is considered good enough for the moneylenders to trust you. Your credit history should be good enough if you want money or big loans from the money lenders. The unfortunate ones who get the tag of having a poor credit usually have 300 credit score.

How Do I Check My FICO Score and Credit Report?

Now that you are aware of how your FICO score impacts your finances, you may be wondering ‘How do I get my free FICO score?’ Easy, To learn more about obtaining a free online credit report, visit http://FreeCreditReports101.com/, an excellent resource on credit reports and your credit score. There are dozens of websites that offer totally free credit reports. There are so many, in fact, that it can be a little bit overwhelming when trying to decide which company to choose. Some things to look for when choosing a credit reporting service are: ease of use, customer service and assistance, detail of reports, accuracy of reports, and whether they offer to assist in repairing your credit score.

Find Out What Your FICO is… Click Here

Prevent Online Scams Guide to Online Shopping

April 15th, 2015 by admin

‘Shopping online has definitely cut down the hassles of going to the store and jostling in jam-packed malls. With the advent of the Internet, affordable online shopping is now at your fingertips. In just a few clicks of the mouse, you can purchase anything of your choice from the stuff on your computer monitor. Purchasing online is definitely the “in” thing because aside from getting a wide array of products, conducting transactions or payment can be done in a jiffy online.

Consumers across the globe are increasingly turning to the one-click convenience of online shopping thus its popularity these days.

Although online stores cast away the inconvenience that normally tail shopping, do you know that scam artists and fraudulent companies are predominant on the web? A recent consumer report of the Global Nielsen identifies the problems encountered by shoppers from cheap online shopping. These include “phishing” or “spoofing”, identity theft, non-delivery of goods, and fraud.

Online merchants are shrewder than what you thought. They sham as legit companies and hook customers with their very low priced commodities. Scammers cloak themselves under impressive marketing skills, and sweet-talk potential victims with goodies and freebies. However excellent in deceiving others, frauds can be avoided if consumers take measures to protect themselves from brick and mortar stores. In fact, Pay Pal, Better Business Bureau (BBB), and Global Nielsen have released safety precautions to those engaging in online shopping. Here are as follows:

Check carefully the website, products and services

Buying online is like purchasing your goods from a brick and mortar store. It’s best to conduct business with companies that the public knows about already. For example, if you shop for electronics online, visit reliable sites such as SONY, Radio Shack, Circuit City, and Tweeter.

Meanwhile, if you find an unfamiliar website, research about the company’s background, products, and services. Reliable companies should include their contact information such as business address and phone numbers. To check the store, call the listed phone number and ask questions to determine the legitimacy of its business. Ask how the merchant handles returned merchandise and complaints. Find out if it offers full refunds or only store credits.

If you’re still not convinced, check the yellow pages or search the Better Business Bureau listings, or a government consumer protection agency to ensure the validity of the company. After you’ve done everything but still feel uncomfortable with the idea of buying or bidding for an item on the web, then maybe you shouldn’t.

Understand the web site’s privacy and security policies

If you opt for online electronics shopping, don’t forget to read carefully the privacy policy. According to BBB, the Privacy Policy helps determine what information the seller is gathering from you, how the information will be used, and how you can stop the process. Or, look for merchants who are members of TRUSTe, Verisign, and BBB.

Scrutinize the company’s rules and regulations for the following: -Shipping costs and guidelines -Cancellation rules -Return and complaint handling policies -Payment guidelines

Keep your accounts safe

Pay with your credit cards every time you place orders. Payments made by credit cards allow you to keep the payment amount in your bank account. Also, some banks grant their clients extended warranties or other advantages for purchases made with the card.

Never use an ATM or debit card for they can expose your bank account to the thieves.

Never give financial and private information

The rule of thumb when making transactions or online shopping for electronics is never to give your Social Security Number and other financial information.

It’s okay to give information including your name, contact numbers, and address, but if the merchant asks beyond that, do not disclose it. Also, keep your password private. Do not use a password that is a giveaway such as your birth date, mother’s name, wife’s name, etc. The best password has at least eight characters and includes numbers and letters.’

Andrew Beene is web copywriter in a web design company associated with a company offering cheap online shopping.